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Rules of academic integrity

The most common mistakes that we come across are listed below. This list is far from exhaustive.

With respect to plagiarism, the following actions are considered to be breaches of integrity:

  • Publishing in one’s own name the findings or discoveries of third parties (plagiarism).
  • Being named as a co-author of a publication without having made a significant contribution to the work.
  • Deliberately omitting the names of people who worked on a project and made a significant contribution to it.
  • Knowingly falsifying citations taken from works of third parties that either exist or are said to exist.
  • Self-plagiarism; that is, willingly failing to cite one’s own prior works.
  • Publishing an article that has already been published in another language without any explicit reference to it.

With respect to scientific fraud, the following actions are considered to be breaches of integrity:

  • Inventing findings.
  • Intentionally falsifying raw research data.
  • Presenting or analyzing research results in an intentionally misleading manner.
  • Excluding research data without recording it or providing reasons for its exclusion.
  • Concealing data.
  • Pirating data.

With respect to scientific fraud and plagiarism, the following actions are considered to be ethical violations:

  • Modifying the order of authors’ names without their agreement and without reason.
  • Willingly naming someone as a coauthor when that person did not contribute to the project.
  • Deliberately omitting important contributions of other authors on the same subject (incomplete bibliography).
  • Knowingly remaining silent about conflicts of interest.
  • Violating duties of confidentiality or duties regarding how state employees should express themselves.
  • Neglecting duties related to monitoring or supervision.
  • Refusing to grant duly-authorized third parties the right to consult raw research data.
  • Presenting differing viewpoints in a non-objective manner.
  • Incorrectly indicating the stage of publication of one’s own works (for example, stating that an article is “in press” when the manuscript has not yet been accepted.)