The burden of proof rests with the teacher who detected the plagiarism. He or she must put together a dossier and submit it to the disciplinary bodies. This is always a process that is difficult to manage and unappreciated at the institutional level.
Trying to “nab” the troublesome individuals is difficult. Is the game worth the candle? It is often like a game of hide-and-seek, because the other students generally know who cheats, when and how. But they are bound by their solidarity.
That is why, like in company anti-corruption programs, all the stakeholders need to be involved.
• Communicate widely the principles of the fight against the major types of fraud and their implementation.
• Raise awareness of students and teachers of their rights and duties with respect to the major types of fraud, particularly in research theses and doctoral dissertations.
• Open special and confidential lines of communication for major cases of fraud in order to protect the individuals who reveal them.